The next time you go to the dentist, make sure you know the word anesthetic.
Later reminiscences penned by Goulds daughter5 and Mortons wife6 do little to illuminate the matter. Dissen screened preceptees like Everett with the same intentionally obscure 1,474 lines of lyric Greek poetry with which the poet John Milton had tested himself: Alexandra, attributed to Lycophron.2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1947. When Ajax avoided punishment for his crime, an enraged Athena condemned the Grecian fleet, even the ships commanded by Odysseus, to destruction or a trying voyage home. From: Church AJ. 1610, first published in 1633 as Holy Sonnet V) by John Donne (15721631), which implores God to make of the poets tears a heavenly Lethean flood in which to drown his sinnes blacke memorie. John Milton (16081674), in Paradise Lost (1667), speaks of how the damned ferry over this Lethean Sound in their progress through the underworld (Bk. A few years later, Randle Cotgrave (ca. 787) along with a few more recent examples, the Oxford English Dictionary barely hints at how much the word flourished as a favorite with 19th-century writers of all stripes. They presented Morton with a signature term designed to turn heads and arrest attention. John Collins Warren and his act of conscience: a brief narrative of the trial and triumph of a great surgeon. Both, though, point us to more expansive terrain, that of the classical canon generally and works more familiar to our learned 19th-century counterparts than to most of us today. Arguably the best short book on the subject; the first edition (1945) was published in the USA by Schuman, and reprinted by the Wood Library-Museum of Park Ridge, USA in 1996. He gave a talk to a class of the Harvard Medical School and then administered the gas to one of them who, unfortunately for Wells, cried out when a tooth was removed. Christ[ian] Gottfried Mller, ed. Very early on, The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (January 20, 1847) published anonymous correspondence under the banner: The Patent Letheon.22 Three months later, in an article titled, The Patent LetheonJackson and Mortons Specification, an anonymous correspondent identified only as S wrote, It has been repeatedly said that Dr. Jackson is not concerned in the Patent for the Letheon, before going on to rehearse Jacksons share in the signal discovery.23. In Britain the main ones are: The Wellcome Collection (www.wellcomecollection.org), 183 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE. on his Claim to the Discovery of the Anaesthetic Properties of Ether, Submitted to the Honorable the Select Committee Appointed by Senate of the United States. The reading public would more likely have encountered allusions to Lethe in everything from Shakespearean plays to homespun stories and poems. Cooling was suggested as a method, and this led Richardson to devise the ether spray, the cooling being produced by rapid evaporation, hence the term still used: freezing. Translated by Henry Francis Cary. Tome Cinquime. Lethean was as unusual to late 20th-century scholars as it continues to be today. 1, line 78 reads in part lethaeo perfusa papavera somno, which translates as poppies drenched in Lethean sleep. Ovid (43 B.C.E. Elsewhere in the dictionary, Johnson quoted sources using the word Lethean, among them John Drydens translation, published in 1697, of Virgils Aeneid (Whole Droves of Minds are, by the driving God, / Compelld to drink the deep Lethan Flood; vi, 101617), and Richard Crashaws Sospetto dHerode (published in Steps to the Temple, 1646), a translation of the first book of a sacred poem by Giovan Battista Marino, with the lines, the Nights companionkindly cheating them / Of all their cares/ Sealing all brests in a Lethan band (verse 49). Postgraduate Training: One consequence of increasing sophistication in anaesthetic techniques is that their benefits will only be obtained if the clinician has the necessary specialist training to implement them safely. The advances include everything from sterile, disposable syringes andneedles to computer controlled anaesthetic machines andelectronic monitors providing a battery of information on both patient physiology and the proper functioning of the equipment. 756, Hornblower S: Lykophrons Alexandra, Rome, and the Hellenistic World. In November, or early December, 1846, Morton enlisted the help of some of Bostons leading physicians regarding a commercial name for his preparation. He settled on the neologism Letheon (as suggested by Augustus Addison Gould, M.D., and Henry Jacob Bigelow, M.D.). Such concerns were behind the major developments in the organizations of the specialty occurring during and after that period. A local anesthetic numbs just one area, such your mouth or a finger. 13431400), who, in his poem, The House of Fame (Hous of Fame, ca. Attributed to the Hellenistic scholar Lycophron of Chalcides (ca.
For his part, Oliver Wendell Holmes went to some pains to come up with a name, though it was for the change effected in those to whom Mortons new compound was administered. Puzzlement, we might imagine, ruled whenever the Alexandra came out. Bikini, bourbon, and badminton were places first. ), of course, wrote in Latin, the Eclogues, Georgics, and the Aeneid comprising his major works. 212, Hale JK: Miltons Languages: The Impact of Multilingualism on Style. Park Ridge: Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology 2012 [ISBN 978-0-9614932-5-7], Eger EI, Saidman LJ, Westhorpe RN. On October 16, 1846, the day of Mortons historic demonstration of etherization, one short stanza of Saxes long poem appeared by chance in the Boston Post under the title, Ingenious Recipe for making a Science. Little could Holmes have known that hed feel the urge, a month hence, to help make (or, more precisely, name) a science, but that in part is what his letter purported to do. Although dates ranging from November 2 to November 21 have been suggested by anesthesia historians, no definitive citations or original documentation were provided to substantiate the various claims. Delivered to your inbox! (19261999), in The Genesis of Surgical Anesthesia (1998), also attributed the word Letheon to Virgil. In six instances, four in the Aeneid and two in the Georgics, he employs forms of the adjective lethaeus, which translates as lethean (causing forgetfulness, of Lethe, of the Underworld). When Morton sought to advertise his discovery to a surprised and curious public, he welcomed the help of physicians who were trained in the classical canon. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Limited, 2002 [ISBN 1-85315-512-8]. Nitrous Oxide returns: From these historic beginnings the science and practice of anaesthesia grew progressively, the details being beyond the scope of this short account, but a few events require mention. This he did with such success that Colton gave up his demonstrations and established a company with the specific aim of providing a service for tooth extraction under the effects of the gas. I throw them out for consideration. Morton, he must have known, was likely not to parse the language so finely, and Holmes, for all his sobriety of address, might have been having a bit of fun: anyone checking John Mason Goods A Physiologic System of Nosology (1823) would have been greeted by more than 500 pages of taxonomic complexity with language notations not only in English and Latin, but also in Greek, German, French, and Arabic.14. Whoever he wasassuming, that is, the newspapers are correct in their spellingCaptain Letheon is a mystery to us today. The doctor gave him the stitches without an. After Snows death Joseph Clover became Britains leading specialist, and sothese two were chosen as the supporters on the Colleges crest when the Royal Warrant was obtained. Anesthesiology 2019; 131:12101222 doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000002969.
The river-goddess Lethe was sometimes identified with the daimona [or spirit] Lethe, forgetfulness personified. Louise H. Pratt, Professor of Classics at Emory University, usefully extends the discussion, observing how, besides amnesia, Lethe can be associated more broadly with an absence of awareness.7 But keeping within the groupings of Greek gods and goddesses, Lethe (a child of Eris, or Strife) came to be associated with the minor Olympian god Nyx (Night), the latters consort Erebus (Darkness), and their children Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death). In an 1811 edition of a standard commentarythat of the Byzantine poet and grammarian Joannes Tzetzes (ca. The word Lethean (an adjectival form of Lethe) entered the language in the 16th century or early 17th century (probably via the French lethean, -anne) as Middle English and Middle French forms were expanded and simplified. adj. to 17/8 C.E. Not all references were as innocent. Familiar with the seminal work of the entomologists Jacob Hbner (17611826) of Germany and Johan(n) Christian Fabricius (17451808) of Denmark, he would have been acquainted with the shade-seeking Lethe genus of butterfly, several species of which are now considered native to New England. Duncum BM. The mythologic River Lethe commands a first look always, but given the 19th-century educational emphasis on classical forms generally, at least two more possibilitiesone from the Latin, another from the Greekare worth reviewing. Many medical schools and hospitals have collections, but they are not always generally available. [1913 Webster] The Collaborative International Dictionary of English, anaesthetic is spelt ae in BrE and e in AmE Modern English usage, anaesthetic (US anesthetic) NOUN a drug or gas that causes insensitivity to pain. Buoyed by the success of his public demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846, at the Massachusetts General Hospital, William T. G. Morton undertook to protect his as yet undisclosed preparation. On October 27, 1846, he joined with Dr. Charles T. Jackson in seeking an American patent. What 19th-century armchair classicists, while helping a young dentist name a new preparation, might have made of this is of course unknown but not, we posit, beyond all conjecture. In fact, the mid-19th century was alive with language study, wordplay, neologisms, and inquiries into the origins of language itself. In another sense entirely, Lethean torpor was exactly what Morton wished to induce in dental and surgical patients, a fact probably not lost on shrewd readers such as Gould and Bigelow, who might have given voice to the thought; and all the better if the effectthis Lethean torporwas achieved by the application of something strangely familiar. Gographie Ancienne. 1480), carries not only the entry Lethe, with a simple comment (grece an[gli]ce forgettyng[e]) that translates as Greek; in English, forgetting, but also the Latin Letu[m] listed with no more than an analogous word mors. Both Mortons notice and his alliance with Keep bear on our present inquiries. Ensuring patient safety was also behind the establishment, courtesy of Lord Nuffield, of the first academic department of anaesthesia at Oxford under Professor (later Sir) Robert Macintosh in 1937, with the training of others an important function. This was the first public demonstration of surgical etherization. Book source University of California Libraries. Before a large audience, Morton administered ether vapour to Gilbert Abbott before Warren removed a tumour from Abbotts neck without any sign of distress. Image source gallica.bnf.fr / Bibliothque Nationale De France (National Library of France), Paris, France. London: Macmillan, 1982 [ISBN 0 333 31681 9] A compilation of articles published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia between 1960 and 1972. This technique has generated more controversy than any other, but the wider implication is that the circulation is as amenable to control as breathing. Varg PA: Edward Everett: The Intellectual in the Turmoil of Politics. He approached Bigelow and Gould, and probably consulted Oliver Wendell Holmes, M.D. Contrary to claims in some historical accounts, Morton did not attempt to disguise the preparation he used on October 16, 1846, by calling it Letheon. On reaching Mycenae with Cassandra now his concubine, the Greeks commander-in-chief, Agamemnon, and the hapless Cassandra were murdered by his wife, Clytemnestra, or Aegisthus, her lover. Accepted for publication August 7, 2019. ).8,1013 He went on to elaborate, Thus we might say the state of Ansthesia, or the ansthetic state, before advising Morton that it might be allowable to say ansthetic agent, but this admits of question. And Holmes didnt stop there. Digitized by Internet Archive. There is evidence that ether inhalation was used for surgery elsewhere in the USA as early as 1842, but those practitioners did nothing to communicate the news to others, making the events in Boston definitive. about navigating our updated article layout. K. L., 1735, p. 169. Evolution of the Modern Specialty: These many developments all improved the standing of the anaesthetist to that of independent practitioner, a situation confirmed in 1948 by all specialties being given equal status in the NHS. 1556) produced, in 1553, A shorte Dictionarie for yonge begynners, which became a standard instructional work. We have already remarked on the misguided notion that Letheon derives from Virgils lethaeus (causing forgetfulness); one overlooked source for Letheon is the Greek (Lethain or Lethon), a neologism found in the poem Alexandra, attributed to the 3rd-century-B.C.E. ), used the word in a similar fashion: the phrase Lethaei gramine succi (Bk.
The Patent LetheonJackson and Mortons Specification. The 1828 revision by Walker and Jameson, a more streamlined one-volume text more handily used by students and others, expanded its list of definitions to include both Lethean (oblivious; causing oblivion) and lethiferous (deadly; bringing death). Of course. Installed at Harvard in 1815 as the inaugural Eliot Professor of Greek Literature, he had traveled to Gttingen for two years tutoring under the guidance of the distinguished classicist G. Ludolf Dissen (17841837)1; Everett toured Europe for two additional years, returning to his post at Harvard in 1819. [Methodical Encyclopedia. Abraham Ortelius note on Letheon in Thesaurus Geographicus (Antwerp, 1587, unnumbered page): LETHEON, , Italia mons excelsus, (in Campania ut puto) Lycophroni. Ortelius note translates into English as: LETHEON, a high mountain in Italy (in Campania, or so I think) [according to] Lycophron. This is the earliest reference we have found in print employing the word Letheon. Possibly. Selinsgrove, PA, Susquehanna University Press, 1992, pp. In fact, no date can be adduced with certainty from 19th-century sources. With Letheon, we proceed across or on Lethe (Lethe + on), appearing insensate, dead, but tricking perception by overturning it. But who actually coined the name, when, and under what circumstances? Engraved by Tommaso Piroli (ca. F. D. Moore, M.D., reviewing the story of J. C. Warrens act of conscience in allowing Morton into the operating theater on November 7, 1846, for a capital operation, proceeds carefully enough in telling the story but then muddies the waters: We realize now that there were two adverse factors at work, two severe problems for Warren to face, over the use of this preparation, this invention, this Letheon of Mortons on the morning of Friday, Oct. 16, 1846.19 This Letheon of Mortons would not be known by that name for well over a month after the October 16 demonstration of surgical etherization. We have not identified a first-hand account of the coinage of Letheon. Tome Cinquime. The phrase, The patent for the Letheon, which confuses discussion to this day, has an obvious appeal to writers old and new. Copyright 2019, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In 1813, another scientist famous in later life, Michael Faraday, joined him as assistant and studied the inhalation of ether. Cartoon illustrations provided by Dr Eoin Kelleher. The word Letheon does not appear in United States Patent No. However, multi-drug general anaesthesia involving curare type agents is required for much modern surgery, and would be disastrous in any number of ways if it were not managed properly. VII, line 152) translates roughly as using an herb of lethean juice. Such examples are plentiful. The new PMC design is here!
To descend is easy, she tells him, The gates of hell are open night and day; / Smooth the descent, and easy is the way: / But to return, and view the cheerful skies, / In this the task and mighty labor lies (Aen. official website and that any information you provide is encrypted with loss of Useful english dictionary, insensate, without feeling; senseless, stupid, The Collaborative International Dictionary of English, Longman dictionary of contemporary English. A bit of dully feather-brained erotica, the comic novel entitled A Voyage to Lethe (1741), authored by the redoubtable Capt. Lethe was a feigned [i.e., imaginary, fictional] River of Hell, the water whereof being drunk, causeth forgetfulness of all that is past; Hence it is used for Oblivion or forgetfulness. Drawing heavily from Blount, Edward Phillips (1630 to ca.1696), in The New World of English Words: Or, a General Dictionary (1658), defined Lethean only as forgetful, with a note on its derivation from Lethe a River of Hell, which the Poets feign [i.e., imagine] to be of that nature that the water of it being drunk, causeth oblivion or forgetfulnesse. A 1706 revision of Phillips dictionary by John Kersey the younger (b. ca. That which produces insensibility to pain, as chloroform, ether, etc. 1)1 applied for a patent and then selected the trade name Letheon for his narcotic preparation. 6, line 239). refers to the house of Lethe (www.attalus.org/poetry/simonides.html) near the Acheron, the underworld River of Pain or Woe. Virgil (70 B.C.E.19 B.C.E. Dryden, 1909, p. 216). Picture of Carl Koller used by kind permission of his daughter. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 110 and p. 110, n.15, Tzetzes I, Tzetzes J: Isaakiou Kai Iannou Tou Tzetzou Scholia Eis Lykophrona, Volumina Tria [Commentary on Lykophron. The shades of the dead drank of its waters to forget their mortal lives. A New Body of Geography: Or, a Compleat Description of the EarthCollected with great Care from the most approvd Geographers and Modern Travellers and Discoveries, by several Hands (London: Printed for Abel Swall and Tim.
And what possible significance might that outcropping have had as Gould gave some thought to names for Mortons preparation? Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Davys Researches, Chemical and Philosophical: Chiefly Concerning Nitrous Oxide, published in 1799, describes two major effects of its inhalation: euphoria (he coined the term laughing gas) and analgesia (it eased the pain of his erupting wisdom tooth). 3). Or perhaps the play worked in reverse, the surname of the eager young dentist suggesting, along classical lines almost too faint to trace, the product name with which to promote the new anodyne gas. A second, enlarged edition appeared in 1963 from Dover Publications, Inc of New York. This was written for the centenary of Mortons great demonstration, and was reprinted by the Royal Society of Medicine; copies are available from the History of Anaesthesia Society (www.histansoc.org.uk). ), most likely imported from the French Les pithtes [Special Words] (1571) compiled by Maurice de La Porte (15311571). Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced searchad free! But while Lth was undoubtedly the foundational root of Letheon, other factors might have informed the 19th-century coinage, chief among them the common adjective Lethean (inducing forgetfulness and oblivion), a word that enjoyed great currency at the time but is largely forgotten today. It stems from discoveries made in Britain during the latter half of the 18th century, the time of the Enlightenment. Further, the safe administration of an anaesthetic has long required more than one pair of hands, and the training of those who assist anaesthetists, and the technicians who maintain the equipment, is equally well-defined now. Davy suggested inhalation of nitrous oxide during surgical operations, but this was not acted upon (that recurring theme again) though a slightly earlier event may indicate possible explanations. ); Departments of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (G.S.B); Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology, Schaumburg, Illinois (G.S.B.). The deep sleep, he wrote, associated with opium came to be described by many writers using Virgils word letheon; a word which was to assume great significance in more modern times.17 Bergman, though, cited a 1946 article by G. K. Tallmadge, where we find this: Poppy was known to produce sleep, to relieve cough, to stop the bowels, and to alleviate pain, and on the last score it was employed medically in very many diseases. 1660 d. in or after 1721), entitled The New World of Words: Or, Universal English Dictionary, omitted the word Lethean. (19302014), implicitly discarded the Greek root (the river Lethe, vialth, oblivion, forgetfulness) suggested by Nathan P. Rice and adopted a more direct Latin line of descent: The writers of antiquity, he wrote, commonly referred to poppy-induced sleep with a term used by Virgil: Letheon.15 He repeated the claim in Doctors: The Biography of Medicine (1988), colorfully describing how, two weeks after the first pain-free amputation at the Massachusetts General Hospital (the etherization event of November 7, 1846), Morton met with two representatives of the hospital, Henry Jacob Bigelow and Oliver Wendell Holmes, and gave the name Letheon to sulfuric ether. Nathan P. Rice, M.D., Mortons authorized biographer, had written in Trials of a Public Benefactor that the provenance of the word Letheon was the Greek Lth.8 The term, Rice noted, was derived from the name of the river Lethe, said in mythology to be one of the rivers in the infernal regions, going on to note the association of the waters of the river with forgetfulness and oblivion.8 Perhaps Rice was relying on received wisdom or perhaps he simply assumed the derivation based on his own familiarity with mythologic associations. Bruzen la Martinire continues, Ortelius croit quelle toit dans la Campanie or, fleshing it out a bit, The Brabantian master cartographer and geographer Abraham Ortelius (15271598) believes this Letheon was in Campania. In his Thesaurus Geographicus (1587), Ortelius specifically references the place-name Letheon, identifying it as , Italia mons excelsus, (in Campania ut puto) Lycophroni or Letheon, a high mountain in Italy (in Campania, or so I think), [according to] Lycophron (fig. p. 148. Churchill House Although the name ultimately derives from the Greek Lth, the adjective Lethean, much in use in the mid-19th century, may have influenced Morton and those he called on to assist in finding a commercial name. ), sometimes referred to as the Myth of Er (Book 10, parts 614a621d), identifies Lethe as the plain of forgetfulness through which flowed the river of Lethe or Ameles potamos, the river of unmindfulness (forgetfulness). Some more recent publications offer, respectively, a more up to date overview, an indication of how the development of anaesthesia has influenced medicine as a whole, biographies of British academic anaesthetists, and a delightful insight into the eponyms of anaesthesia: Rushman GB, Davies NJH, Atkinson RS. A poetic jocularity attends the recognition that were the Latin root substituted for the Greek, Letheon (Lth + the common suffix -on) becomes Morton (mort- + -on). The word anesthetic traces back to the Greek word anaisthsia, from a combination of an-, meaning without and aisthsis, meaning sensation. If you take an anesthetic thats what happens: you are temporarily without sensation, meaning you feel no pain. Accessed 21 Jul. Learn more As Mortons example demonstrates, simple ether anaesthesia can be used for minor surgery with little in the way of knowledge, skill or experience. Submitted for publication February 21, 2019. Dr. Francis Boott, an expatriate American, learning of Mortons success through a letter from Boston, arranged for a Miss Lonsdale to have a tooth removed by James Robinson before a group which included Robert Liston. Most of the herbal mixtures were devised in Southern Europe or the Orient where plants with active alkaloids (e.g. She even foresaw that Ajax the Lesser would rape her after dragging her from the temple of the goddess Athena when the Greeks sacked Troy. On August 7, the New-York Spectator announced that the same French brig LArmide, under Captain Letheon, out of Senegal, Africa, had cleared the port of Savannah, Georgia. (Med.) Phrases and idioms: general anaesthetic an anaesthetic that affects the whole body, usu. Reprinted often, Whittiers poem would have been circulating at the time of Mortons demonstration and the events occurring soon thereafter. Although we now have more insight into the etymology of Letheon, the date when Morton adopted the name remains elusive. Formal postgraduate training of medically qualified anaesthetists began in 1935 with the institution of the Diploma in Anaestheticsrequiring one years supervised clinical experience. Box 6278, North Sydney, NSW 2059, Australia. By the months end, readers of The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal would see a short notice posted by Morton advising that a name for this new operation (i.e., the administration of his compound to produce insensibility to pain) would shortly be forthcoming. Digitized by Google. They might have been helped as well by a translation by Philip Yorke, Viscount Royston (17841808), an 1803 graduate of St. Johns College, Cambridge.
And as for Bruzen la Martinire, his definition of Aornos (Lake Avernus) relies in part on Virgil, who said the Greeks associated the lake with a Cumaean cave that the Romans knew as the entrance to the Underworld (Aen. & n. (US anesthetic) n. a substance that produces insensibility to pain etc. A Short History of Anaesthesia: The First 150 Years. He explores our forbears curiosity about foreign languages and the ancient, hidden meaning of words and goes on to describe at length the linguistic effervescence of mid-19th-century America, a time when both scholarly and popular enthusiasms focused attention on the origins of words.9 The title page of Websters immense American Dictionary (1828) notes that the work was intended to include The Origin, Affinities and Primary Signification of English Words, as Far as They Have Been Ascertained[as well as] Accurate and Discriminating Definitionsto Which are Prefixed, an Introductory Dissertation on the Origin, History and Connection of the Languages of Western Asia and of Europe. The dictionary reflected expansive lexicographical exploration as well as ordinary readers wide-ranging enthusiasms. Lethe is defined by Liddell and Scott (1889, p. 889) as a forgetting, forgetfulness and, in the post-Homeric period, a place of oblivion in the lower world. A Greek fragment sometimes attributed to Simonides of Cos (ca. Anesthetic. Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anesthetic.
p. 116. An unattributed poem in Londons The Sporting Magazine (January 1800, Vol. The Greek text of Alexandra contained the hitherto unknown word (Lethainos), the genitive (or possessive) case of (Lethain or Lethon), a lengthened form of Lth not found elsewhere in the Greek canon. The Geoffrey Kaye Museum (http://www.anzca.edu.au/resources/geoffrey-kaye-museum), Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists, ANZCA House, 630 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe Editor Emily Brewster clarifies the difference. Of a simplified spelling in French? 6, trans. (18091894), a Boston physician, poet, and author. The introduction of the first rapidly acting intravenous anaesthetic (thiopental) in 1934 made induction much pleasanter for patients, but its management requires far greater skills than the slower onset of an inhalational agent. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 290, Yorke P (Viscount Royston): Cassandra, Translated from the Original Greek of Lycophron, and Illustrated with Notes. As its earliest example, the Oxford English Dictionary (18791928) cited James Howell (ca.15941666), who in his oft-reprinted Familiar Letters (1647) writes, I did not think Suffolk Waters had such a Lethean Quality in them as to cause such an Amnestia in him of his Friends here upon the Thames (The Familiar Letters of James Howell, 1890 reprint, pp. Royston, following Tzetzes, identifies Lethon simply as a mountain of Italy, but tellingly notes of Avernus or Aornos that it is a lake near the Lucrine, and surrounded with woods, according to Virgil. (Here Royston notes Virgils Aeneid, Bk. Boost your test score with programs developed by Vocabulary.coms experts. And who, we ask, was Lycophron? Todays Fellowship standard examinations are associated with a competency based training programme of seven years minimum duration. From the Harry Daly Museum and Richard Bailey Library, Australian Society of Anaesthetists, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (R.P.H. But they had the Tzetzes' commentary for grammatical, geographical, and even thematic help, and it sufficed to a point. The earliest dictionaries were little more than bilingual compilations of words with simple definitions. 320 B.C.E. Though a convenient shorthand reference, it does, however, promulgate an historical error. Send us feedback. Paris, Chez Panckoucke, 1789, p. 270, Ortelius A. Thesaurus Geographicus. His reputation grew such that in 1853 he administered chloroform to Queen Victoria for the birth of Prince Leopold, andPrincess Beatrice in 1857.