U.S. geographical strains of these four species were used for the studies. According to them, it is a result of the inability of ectotherms (such as psocids) to regulate their body temperature, thus body temperature is a function of the temperature of their surroundings, such that within a certain range, the rate of metabolic reactions will be directly related to temperature. FOIA Values of n for N3 at 27.5, 30, and 32.5C were 28, 27, and 27, respectively. M.R. Management. Population growth was highest at 32.5C and 75% RH; under these conditions the population increased 32-fold in 30 d. Final no. Booklice may become noticeable during warm, moist conditions found in damp rooms, duct work, storerooms, libraries or other favorable habitats that provide food, shelter and proper conditions. Description. For male L. rufa, lower and upper developmental thresholds are 12.2 and 36.9C, respectively, and for females these values are 8.5 and 38.7C, respectively. Bookshelf Incubation time varied with temperature and a quadratic equation described the relationship between temperature and incubation time well (Fig. 2 BD and 3 AC; Tables 5 and 6). These data provide a better understanding of how temperature and RH may influence L. pearmani population dynamics and can be used in population growth models to help develop effective management strategies for this psocid, and to predict its occurrence.
S.G. Lack-of-fit P values for males and females were 0.80 and 0.25, respectively. The smaller upper developmental thresholds of L. pearmani and L. reticulatus compared with the other psocids suggest that these species are not adapted to surviving in high temperature environments. Fig. Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. Therefore, for both males and females, 35.0C data were not used for linear regression. Untransformed means and standard errors are reported to simplify interpretation.
The viability of L. pearmani eggs was similar to that of L. brunnea and L. rufa eggs. M.K. The mortality of three species of Psocoptera, A novel model of temperature-dependent development for arthropods, Infestation of warehouses and ships' holds by psocids in Britain, The dynamics of body water in the booklouse, Development and reproduction of the psocid, Intraspecific variability in number of larval instars in insects, Population growth and development of the psocid, Summary of field observations on psocoptera, Tropical Development and Research Institute. Duration of the nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages varied with temperature (Figs. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the
The effect of a range of temperatures (1542C) and relative humidities (4080%) on growth of populations of Liposcelis entomophilus (Enderlein), Liposcelis bostrychophilus Badonnel and Liposcelis. For all these nine species, temperature affected nymphal survival, with extreme temperatures being detrimental to survival. Howe View 10 excerpts, cites background and methods. The population reared at 30C had the highest intrinsic rate of increase (0.0946), net reproductive rate (59.59), the shortest population doubling time (7.3 d), and shorter mean generation time (43.2 d) compared with the populations rearing at 6 other constant temperatures. Flora and Fauna Handbook No. Liu LJ, Pang AH, Feng SQ, Cui BY, Zhao ZH, Kuerov Z, Stejskal V, Opit G, Aulicky R, Cao Y, Li FJ, Wu Y, Zhang T, Li ZH. 2010). Dong H. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P > 0.05). Parameters ( SE) for quadratic equations (y=a+bx+cx2) describing the duration of the egg, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages of male Liposcelis pearmani at constant temperatures. Few insects could complete the development or reproduce at 20 or 40 degrees C. Between 22.5 and 37.5 degrees C, the developmental period from egg to adult varied from 45.4 d at 22.5 degrees C to 11.5 d at 37.5 degrees C. The lower temperature developmental thresholds were estimated at 18.1-21.9 degrees C, and the upper temperature thresholds were 40.4-42.0 degrees C. The percentage of survival from egg to adult was 52.79% at 32.5 degrees C and 18.79% at 22.5 degrees C. After emergence, the adult had a short preoviposition period that ranged from 6.3 d at 22.5 degrees C to 0.8 d at 37.5 degrees C. L. paeta produced the most eggs at 27.5 degrees C and the fewest at 37.5 degrees C. The population reared at 32.5 degrees C had the highest intrinsic rate of increase compared with the other temperatures.
A good listing of insecticides registered for use in these use sites to control booklice is available at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ig094. Processes by which water balance in psocids is maintained are well explained by Devine (1982) . 2011 Aug;104(4):1436-44. doi: 10.1603/ec11046.
L.S. A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects. A 28% developmental mortality was observed. Similar results have been reported for L. reticulatus (Opit and Throne 2008), L. brunnea (Opit and Throne 2009), and L. rufa (Gautam et al. Development of female Liposcelis pearmani at constant temperatures and 75% RH: (A) eggs, (B) first, (C) second, and (D) third instars. Wei F.X. 2007), 40.0 (Jiang et al. Mockford, E. L. 1993. 1999, Nayak et al. N.A. 2000), L. reticulatus and L. brunnea (Opit and Throne 2008, 2009), and L. rufa (Gautam et al. Athanassiou In the analysis of the proportions of viable eggs and nymphs that developed to the adult stage (male plus female), the design for analysis was an RCBD. Staines In addition, the curve was assessed to determine whether it had a shape that was reasonable for describing the data (i.e., showed a relationship that could be described as biologically meaningful). We have also shown that female L. pearmani have two to five instars, and the percentages of females with two, three, four, and five instars were 5, 39, 55, and 1%, respectively. This difference corresponded to females generally having one more instar than males. 2018 May 28;111(3):1476-1480. doi: 10.1093/jee/toy104. These conclusions appear to be supported by the observation that we have not found L. pearmani in steel bins containing wheat in the U.S. mid-west where we have sampled wheat for several years. Her graduate work at Oklahoma State University was supported by the Fulbright Foreign Student Program. 1989). 2007), L. badia (Jiang et al. Based on the quadratic equation, the predicted optimal incubation temperature is 33.7C, and development is completed in 7.0 d at this temperature. Female L. pearmani were found to have two to five nymphal instars, and the percentages of females with two, three, four, and five instars were 5, 39, 55, and 1%, respectively. Curr Opin Insect Sci. Regardless of the information provided in an Extension publication, always follow your products label. Ontogenetic variation in thermal sensitivity shapes insect ecological responses to climate change. All pesticides should be stored in their original labeled containers and kept out of the reach of children. Based on these population growth data alone, L. pearmani has greater potential to be a more serious stored-product pest than L. brunnea but a much lower one than L. rufa. In addition, we would like to extend our appreciation to E. Mockford who confirmed the identity of L. pearmani. The mean developmental period of the females was 22.3 days and that of the males was 18.4 days. MeSH P.J. Average percentages of viable eggs across all temperatures for these species were 87, 80, and 90%, respectively.
C.A. We determined effects of temperature and relative humidity on the increase in number of psocids over a 30-d period at eight temperatures (22.5, 25.0, 27.5, 30.0, 32.5, 35.0, 37.5, and 40.0C) and four relative humidities (43, 55, 63, and 75%).
At optimal temperature and humidity, wingless immature stages or nymphs hatching from eggs develop through 3-4 stages or instars over a period of about 10 days before becoming adults. This difference corresponded to females generally having one more instar than the males (Tables 2 and 5). All pesticides are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. The lowest fecundity.
Label instructions are subject to change, so read the label carefully before buying, using and disposing of any pesticide. J.J. Hunter 2008); L. reticulatus (Opit and Throne 2008); L. paeta (Wang et al. Zhao A complete life cycle, including egg incubation period may average approximately 24 days, although temperature and humidity can affect this life cycle length considerably. K.L. The greatest population growth was recorded at 32.5C and 75% RH (32-fold growth). Finally, we have developed temperature-dependent development equations that can be used to elucidate L. pearmani population dynamics and help develop effective management strategies. S. Gautam 10. Quadratic equations described the relationship between temperature and development time well for nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages (Table 3). 2010). The ability of L. brunnea to multiply rather rapidly at 55% RH may allow it to thrive under conditions of low relative humidity where other Liposcelis species may not. Roger E. Gold and Mike Merchant for their review and helpful comments in the development of this fact sheet.
Z. We found that male L. pearmani have two to four nymphal instars, and the percentages of males with two, three, and four instars were 17, 63, and 20%, respectively. Monitor for booklice by visually inspecting areas of infestation. This work was funded by the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station (Project No. 1998); L. bostrychophila (Wang et al. Bastiaan M. Drees, Professor and Extension Entomologist 2010). 2000); L. decolor (Tang et al. A.Y. 2000), L. tricolor (Dong et al. Possible explanations for this difference could be that L. pearmani and L. rufa N1 and N2 are much hardier and cope much better with the handling they are exposed to during experiments and/or the high mortality in the case of L. brunnea and L. reticulatus may be because of the detrimental effects of 75% RH in which nymphal development was studied (Opit and Throne 2008, Gautam et al. In all cases df = 5,10 and P < 0. For both data sets, the design used for analysis was an RCBD with subsampling. In the determination of the effects of temperature on the duration of development of L. pearmani, data for males and females were analyzed separately. Similar results were found for L. bostrychophila (Wang et al.
( SE) of motile Liposcelis pearmani present in vials after 30 d (n=18). Lack-of-fit P values for the duration of the egg, Nl, N2, N3, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages were 0.21, 0.12, 0.87, 0.28, 0.58, and 0.20, respectively. Minimal Thermal Requirements for Development and Activity of Stored Product and Food Industry Pests (Acari, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Psocoptera, Diptera and Blattodea): A Review. 3 pp. In some cases, particularly if winged species are suspected, glue boards can be placed next to vents or near other suspected habitats to determine the source of infestation. Wang Weng (1986) showed that the mortality of adult female L. entomophila increased sharply at humidities below 56% and Rees and Walker (1990) found that none of the three psocid species they studied (L. bostrychophila, L. entomophila, and L. paeta) were able to survive at relative humidities below 60%. The site is secure. At 75% RH, the optimal temperature for development of L. pearmani males and females from egg to adult is 32.5C and at this temperature development is completed in 18.7 and 21.9 d, respectively. Beyond optimal temperatures for development, temperature negatively impacts biological processes and results in increased development time. Throne 359 pp. Plumbing and roof leaks can lead to moist conditions that favor booklice, as can condensation from air conditioning systems. T. Texas Cooperative Extension. Quadratic equations describe the relationship between temperature and development time for the various stages of male and female L. pearmani well. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.
P. View 4 excerpts, cites background and methods.
2009); and Liposcelis tricolor Badonnel (Dong et al.
Tammaru 2014 Aug 8;9(8):e102867. 2019 May 23;10(5):149. doi: 10.3390/insects10050149.
government site. There have been studies on the ecology of L. entomophila (Leong and Ho 1995, Wang et al. J Econ Entomol. F. Esperk T. Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Throne JE, Nakas CT. PLoS One. Describes the characteristics of psocids, their habits, and steps that can be taken to control psocids in the home. Cooper cases with linear equations; an R2 value is presented. However, it is only recently that psocids have emerged as pests of substance in stored products (Phillips and Throne 2010). C.G. Liu 2007). They were considered previously only as nuisance pests of minor economic importance partly because of their small size, which makes their detection difficult, and because of the limited information available on their ecology (Athanassiou et al. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. HHS Vulnerability Disclosure, Help The reasons why temperature affected egg viability of the two groups of psocids differently is not clear but may be related to their geographical origin. The experiment consisted of three temporal replications. X.Q. 2009a). In the case of L. entomophila (Wang et al. 2007 and references therein). For instance, Hot Shot No-Pest Strip and Vaportape II, both containing dichlorvos of DDVP, paradichlorobenzene (PDB) crystals or naphthalene cones are sold to prevent pests of insect collections. Jiang Li An official website of the United States government. Speight They feed mainly on microscopic molds, as well as dead or decayed plant or animal material. In some cases, such as in loosely constructed buildings, total control of booklice may not be feasible. Trade names or commercial products mentioned in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by Oklahoma State University. Six and seven species were found infesting the feed mill and animal feed warehouse, respectively. J.J. F.H. The upper developmental thresholds for both male and female L. pearmani are similar to those thresholds for L. reticulatus but smaller than those thresholds of L. rufa. Based on 30-d population growth, L. pearmani cannot survive at temperatures >35.0C; does not thrive at low relative humidities (55%), at temperatures above 25C; and has a high optimum relative humidity for population growth (75%). Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 1;7(1):16694. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-16888-z. 2010). The .gov means its official. Flinn
Vacuuming susceptible areas has been effective. Wang This information suggests that L. decolor, L. entomophila, L. paeta, and L. rufa with higher optimal temperatures for development probably will occur commonly in warmer environments. 2008), and L. paeta (Wang et al. J.J. Z.Y. Under magnification, booklice resemble miniature termites with a broad head, narrow mid-section (thorax) and wide abdomen. Steel bins used to store wheat get extremely hot in summer and early fall and it is doubtful L. pearmani would survive in them. 2000); Liposcelis badia Wang, Wang, and Lienhard (Jiang et al. However, L. pearmani, with a lower optimal temperature for development, is probably adapted to cooler conditions and climates.
2009), and L. rufa (Gautam et al. Based on our data, the lower and upper developmental thresholds for L. pearmani males are 12.1 and 33.2C, respectively; for females, these temperatures are 13.9 and 33.1C, respectively. The name, psocid (short for Psocidae, a family within Psocoptera) may be a better term to use for this group. Previously, the number of psocid species, their abundance and distribution, and factors affecting population dynamics were determined for a feed mill (G.P.O., unpublished data) and an animal feed warehouse in Stillwater, OK (Opit et al. 1989. ), Grain Mites (Acarus siro), and Flour Beetles (Tribolium spp. Species found in the feed mill were Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae), Liposcelis decolor (Pearman), Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein), Liposcelis pearmani Lienhard, Liposcelis rufa Broadhead, and Lepinotus reticulatus Enderlein (Psocoptera: Trogiidae). 2008 Oct;37(5):1105-12. doi: 10.1603/0046-225x(2008)37[1105:tdaroa]2.0.co;2. When in doubt about any instructions, contact your pesticide seller, or the manufacturer listed on the label, for clarification. 1998), L. decolor (Tang et al. However, these mortalities were lower than those mortalities found for L. reticulatus (Opit and Throne 2008) and L. brunnea (Opit and Throne 2009), which were 80100% and 87100%, respectively. J.J.
2009). The author wishes to thank Drs. H. P.A. 2008), and 40.5C (Wang et al. 2. The experiment had three temporal replications, and the experimental design was a randomized complete block (RCBD) with subsampling. Giles May they find it digestible. Adults of other less common indoor psocid species, such as the small-winged southern house psocid, Psocatropos microps (Enderlein)(Psocoptera: Psyllipsocidae), have wings and actively leap when disturbed (Mockford 1993). Pavic Pierre 2003, Beckett and Morton 2003, Nayak and Daglish 2007); and the fact that commodities infested by psocids can be rejected for export (Kuerov 2002, Nayak 2006) have led to the recognition of psocids as serious pests worldwide in the last two decades. Based on the quadratic equations for N1, N2, N3, and N4, the predicted optimal development temperatures are 33.5, 32.4, 33.3, and 32.4C, and development is completed in 4.6, 4.6, 4.5, and 4.8 d, respectively. 2008), L. paeta (Wang et al. Pracros Duration of the nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages varied with temperature (Figs. H.B. A. Jackman. They based this explanation on the premise that 70% RH is the lower limit for the development of many storage fungi (Smith 1954). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102867. The optimal relative humidity for L. brunnea is 63% (Opit and Throne 2009) whereas that for L. rufa (Gautam et al. PROC MIXED was used for analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the effects of temperature and relative humidity on numbers of psocids in vials, which was transformed using the square-root transformation to stabilize variances before analysis. Bonjour A. Aminatou, S. G. Gautam, G. P. Opit, J. Talley, K. Shakya, Population Growth and Development of Liposcelis pearmani (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at Constant Temperatures and Relative Humidities, Environmental Entomology, Volume 40, Issue 4, 1 August 2011, Pages 788796, https://doi.org/10.1603/EN11066. PMC All booklice have a bulging clypeus (the upper lip area above the mouthparts) and long, filamentous antennae.
By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our. 2016 Nov;55(6):737-743. official website and that any information you provide is encrypted Temperature-dependent development and reproduction of a novel stored product psocid, Liposcelis badia (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).